Gyn Cytology

Gyn­ae­co­lo­gic­al Cyto­logy con­sists of ex­fo­li­ated cells sampled from the fe­male gen­it­al track, namely the cer­vix. This screen­ing test is per­formed on the healthy fe­male pop­u­la­tion to find early-stage disease caused by the HPV vir­us.

There are 2 ba­sic cell types seen on a cer­vic­al smear: these are squam­ous cells and en­do­cer­vic­al/glandu­lar cells. The HPV vir­us can af­fect both of these cell types and if left un­treated can even­tu­ally lead to ma­lig­n­ancy.

Ac­cord­ing to the Bethesda sys­tem for re­port­ing cer­vic­al cyto­logy, cer­vic­al le­sions are broken down in to the fol­low­ing cat­egor­ies:

  1. ASC_US
  2. LSIL
  3. ASC-H
  4. HSIL
  5. Squamous cell carcinoma
  6. Glandular lesion

The im­ages provided can be used as a gen­eral guid­ance to their present­a­tion on a cer­vic­al smear pre­pared us­ing NOVAprep® tech­no­logy.

There will be times where an accurate diagnosis cannot be given due several limiting factors:

  • Insufficient tissue sampled;
  • A full representation of the cervix is not present;
  • Poor fixation.

The presence of several physiological and non-physiological contaminants can lead to an inaccurate diagnosis.

The physiological contaminants are blood, mucus and inflammatory cells, as they can completely obscure the tissue needed for diagnosis.

The non-physiological factors, are not limited to, but mainly consist of lubricant, talc & sperm.

Contaminants such as these can lead to a false negative or false positive report.

Squam­ous le­sions form the bulk of the ab­nor­mal­it­ies de­tec­ted in the cer­vic­al screen­ing pro­gram. There are 2 defin­it­ive cat­egor­ies and 2 am­bigu­ous cat­egor­ies due to the vari­a­tion in in­ter­pret­a­tion of the subtle nuc­lear changes that are ob­served.

The defin­it­ive cat­egor­ies are LSIL and HSIL. LSIL (low grade squam­ous in­trae­pitheli­al le­sions) are re­served for ab­nor­mal nuc­lear changes in ma­ture squam­ous cells. HSIL (high grade squam­ous in­trae­pitheli­al le­sions) are re­served for ab­nor­mal nuc­lear changes in im­ma­ture squam­ous cells.

The am­bigu­ous le­sions can be broken down in­to 2 cat­egor­ies: ASC-US (Atyp­ic­al Squam­ous Cells of&nb­sp; Un­deter­mined Sig­ni­fic­ance) and ASC-H (Atyp­ic­al Squam­ous Cells High grade).

ASC-US is re­served for cells that are show­ing changes that could eith­er be linked to a low-grade disease, an in­fect­ive or­gan­ism or simply re­act­ive changes. ASC-H is nor­mally re­served for cells that are show­ing changes that could equate to HSIL.

Squam­ous cell car­cinoma of the cer­vix is the in­vas­ive le­sion of the ec­to­cer­vix.

As cer­vic­al cyto­logy is a screen­ing test, a very high per­centage of cases fall in­to this cat­egory. A cer­vic­al smear should con­sist of squam­ous cells and a samp­ling of the trans­form­a­tion zone (TZ).

The TZ con­sists of meta­plast­ic cells where it is be­lieved most ab­nor­mal­it­ies be­gin. For a com­plete pic­ture of the cer­vix, en­do­cer­vic­al cells should also be present.

The im­ages are a rep­res­ent­a­tion of how neg­at­ive samples can be seen us­ing the NOVAprep tech­no­logy.

Gyneco­lo­gic­al cyto­logy is not dia­gnost­ic for mi­cro-or­gan­isms, but it is pos­s­ible to identi­fy sev­eral mi­cro­bi­al in­fec­tions in gyneco­lo­gic­al LBC samples:

  • Trichomonas vaginalis;
  • Candida species;
  • Herpes simplex virus;
  • Actinomyces species;
  • Lactobacilli and coccobacilli;
  • Leptothrix.

The ab­sence of a mi­crobe from a gyneco­lo­gic­al LBC sample does not con­clus­ively prove that the pa­tient does not have an in­fec­tion.


Metaplastic Cells
Squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix
Excessive Blood
Herpes Simplex Virus
Inflammatory Changes
Lactobacilli and Coccobacilli
Trichomonas Vaginalis

For any sup­port is­sue, tech­n­ic­al en­quiry or in­form­a­tion re­quest, please use the fol­low­ing:

Technical Support Email:

Technical Support Number: +375298931444

(Eng­l­ish and Rus­si­an speak­ing op­tions are avail­able)